Monday, April 16, 2012

Commemorating the anniversary of the Battle of Culloden 16 April 1746

The Battle of Culloden by Mark Churms
The panoramic view of the last battle fought on British soil, at the moment
where MacBean stands in the breach in the wall.
 
A Brief Overview of the Battle of Culloden
 The Battle of Culloden, took place on 16th April, 1746, is to this day surrounded by myths and inaccurate accounts. It was not a war between Scotland and England. It was not a war between Catholics and Protestants. It was, however, a dynastic struggle between two different royal houses: the house of Stuart and the house of Hanover. Led by Bonnie Prince Charlie.
 
At 5am on the morning of 16th April, 1746, the Hanoverian army began to march toward it's foe on Culloden Moor. The Jacobites, on the other hand, were mostly asleep or resting after their dreadful night march on Cumberland’s camp near Nairn. The Prince and his commanders heard the news of the approaching army around 8.00am, and were taken by surprise. Frantic preparations were made to gather the wandering men and wake those who were asleep. A rapidly organised line was to be deployed for defensive purposes on the moor with some of the 5000 men now mustered. However, the objections of some officers including Lord George Murray to the proposed battle site were to be made evident to the Prince. Bonnie Prince Charlie refused to make any alterations, perhaps with too much confidence in the ability of his Highland army, and due to his lack of experience, a severe misunderstanding of the better-equipped Hanoverian force.

Assembled in two hastily-organised lines, with a small reserve at the rear, the Jacobite army waited for their enemy to arrive. They didn't have to wait too long. Around 11.00am, they caught sight of the Duke's army, which drew up about a mile away from the Jacobites and went into battle formation. After waiting for something to happen, the Duke drew his 9000-strong force to a position 500 meters from the Jacobite front line. His formation was well thought out and his men carefully placed. At 1.00pm, the two armies faced each other across the bleak Culloden Moor, the rain and sleet driving into the faces of the Jacobite ranks.
Culloden Moor Battlefield Today - Scotland
A shot pounded out from one of the Jacobite cannon, and the Hanoverian artillery responded. The battle of Culloden Moor had begun. Cumberlands artillery were accurate and efficient, their guns pounding the Jacobite ranks. A switch to Grape-shot, a bag of smaller shot designed to take down large numbers of men, proved to do its duty. Instead of one cannon-ball, forty or fifty smaller missiles hurtled towards the Jacobites with every shot. They devastated the highland army, cutting down men where they stood. 
 
 At this time, no orders had been given to Advance in the highland army and the men were getting extremely frustrated. This proved too much for the Mackintoshes, who led the right wing into a full charge against a hail of fire from the Government troops. They met and broke through the Hanoverian front line, only to be stopped in their tracks by the bayonets and muskets of the second line. The highlanders charged for all their worth, jumping over each other to attack in an attempt to break the enemy formation.

With the Macdonald charge now on and being met by Cumberlands horses, terrible losses were being inflicted on the Jacobite army. It became apparent after a short while that the whole battle had turned to the Hanoverian favour, and so the orders were given to fall back and leave the field. The Jacobite losses were estimated at around 1200 men, with the remainder splitting up and heading to the hills. The Prince took flight on his horse, calling in to see Lord Lovat . He had been on the fence throughout the whole affair, but his hospitality toward Charles was to get him executed soon afterwards.
Inscription on the memorial cairn at Culloden battlefield Scotland
Heading westward to meet a ship bound for France, the prince rode off. Some of his army re-gathered at Ruthven shortly afterwards, but they were instructed to disband and seek shelter. Some say that this army was over 5000, larger than the actual Jacobite army at Culloden. However, the story goes, when the news came that the Prince himself has abandoned the cause, the highlanders threw their swords away in the heather in disgust.

The casualties reported by Cumberlands men were just over 300 dead and wounded, a small dent in his force of 9000 men. His forces showed no mercy on the battlefield either, killing every Jacobite they could find that lay wounded. This earned him the nickname 'the butcher'. They then set off down to ransack Inverness, taking control of the small highland township and imprisoning some Jacobites in a church. Rape and pillage was rife, with the Hanoverian troops being described as "uncontrollable and vicious" by a local minister at the time. 

As part of remembering those lives lost as a result of the Battle of Culloden, it is my pleasure to include a short story, 'Recollections of a Spirit" by Jeanne Treat, author of The Dark Birthright Trilogy.
I will provide a link to her wonderful blog as well as information about her fantastic and beautifully written 
trilogy at the end of this post.

Recollections of a Spirit by Jeanne Treat

It was a cold morning on April 16th, 1746. The sun had just risen.
Duncan and I had traveled for days on horseback, to join the army of the Prince. We trusted that he could defeat the red soldiers as he had at Prestonpans. Near Inverness, a French courier demanded our intentions and asked us to carry letters to Culloden House. Duncan took the letters, stored them in his plaid, and we continued on our way. His brothers met us at Inverness, telling us to fight with the Glengarry regiment, camped near Drumossie Moor. I took the letters and told him to join his brothers, that I would follow after I delivered them.
That was the last time that I saw him as a free man. I was taken at Inverness by the English and jailed. When it was determined that I carried letters in French, they beat me mercilessly, asking who they were for, and what their meaning was. I could not tell them. They kept me in irons in a cold cellar, without food or water. The beatings were relentless.
Word came that day that the Prince’s army had been soundly defeated. Other prisoners joined me, many with mortal wounds, dying shortly thereafter. Men arrived with limbs hacked or bowels pierced. The stench of rotting flesh was overpowering. There was no word of my friend or his brothers. They kept us in a cellar, bound, with no food or water for that day and the next. No one tended our wounds or administered last words. Men cried piteously for water or death. Still, I held out hope.
On the morning of the third day, I learned that I was to be executed as a rebel. After sunrise, I would be flogged to death at the tree outside the jail. They’d sent for a lowlander from a nearby encampment, known for his brutality.
Before sunrise, I was brought outside and made to sit on the cold ground to await my fate. I smelled wood fires and heard dogs barking, as red soldiers guarded me. Able-bodied prisoners were brought out to watch, but they wouldn’t look at me. I knew it was my last day.
As a young man, I was no stranger to whippings. I did as I liked and risked the consequences. Father whipped me soundly with a strap many times. I played a game that I would not flinch or cry out, so he beat me until he was no longer angry. These were my thoughts as I waited, that it would not be worse than that.
The red soldiers allowed a man of the cloth to approach me to say the last words. It was cold and he wore a hood that obscured his face. As he knelt beside me and pushed back his hood, I saw that it was Duncan. By God’s grace he had survived the battle. He touched my forehead and made the sign of the cross, saying the words we’d heard so many times. With tears in his eyes, he whispered that he couldn’t save me, but would avenge my death with his last breath. I begged him not to watch it, but he would not leave me.
At sunrise the Lowlander arrived, a muscular man with eyes of steel. Soldiers pounded stakes into either side of an oak, removed my irons and shirt, and tied me to the tree with rope. It was cold but I was sweating, and my heart pounded like a drum. As blood rushed in my ears, I heard the sentence being read.
A soldier gagged me, but the man removed it, saying that he needed to hear me. He took the ‘cat’ out of his bag and showed it to me. It was a whip of nine knotted strands, ending in sharp bits of metal. In a voice that was cold and deliberate, he taunted me, calling me a rebel, a traitor, and an animal. I burned with humiliation and anger.
All I wanted was to bear my punishment in silence and die like a man; but it wasn’t to be. I held staunch for twenty strokes and faltered, my pride crumbling. I grunted, cursed, and gasped for breath as the leather tails blistered my back. May God forgive me, I cried like a child, and rubbed my wrists raw against the ropes.
He stopped after one-hundred strokes to drink. I was nearly unconscious, so they roused me with water. Before he began again, he taunted me. He’d wagered that I wouldn’t last another fifty, and intended to finish me now. The man ran his rough fingers across the marks in my flesh, thrust his hand down the front of my kilt, and touched me as a lover would.
In spite of my predicament, I was furious and spit into his face. His eyes narrowed in anger.
He began again, whipping me with a vengeance. Blood soaked my kilt, ran down my legs, and pooled in my boots. I could barely stand, and the cries that I made were not even human.
I heard them call out one-forty.
Silently, I begged God to take my soul. I was cold and trembling, too weak to cry out. My body was dying but my mind was a raging storm. I held on to anger and refused to die. My inner voice cried, “I won’t let go, I won’t let go!”
Duncan’s anguished thoughts broke through my inner turmoil.
Eavan let go!
Let go! Eavan let go!
For God’s sake let go!
May God forgive me for not taking your place!
My mind calmed and my breathing slowed. A brilliant bubble formed before my eyes, translucent and full of light. I saw Mother looking out to sea for my brother, Grandfather whittling a walking stick, and young John struggling on his deathbed. The bubble enfolded me, and softly popped.
I was pleasantly confused, convinced that they’d stopped the execution. I stood among them in my best riding breeks, shirt, and plaid. It was lightly snowing but I was as warm as fresh bread. I flexed my shoulder muscles and gazed at my hands. My backside was whole and my wrists were healed.
The big man cleaned and oiled his whip and put it in his bag. He joked with the soldiers about the rebel bastard, and collected his wagers. Still I did not understand. Duncan mounted his horse and rode towards me.
I waved my hands. “Duncan. Over here! They let me go.”
My friend stared through me to a place beyond, his face lined with grief. What did he see? I turned my head and saw the bloody shell of a body that was mine, and knew I was dead.
A young soldier thrust his bayonet into the body. “The rebel is gone! Let this be a lesson to all who oppose the King of England.”
Duncan made the sign of the cross and rode off on his chestnut mare. I followed him out of town, where he dismounted and concealed his horse behind some trees. He sat on a log and waited, running his thumb along the blade of his dirk.
Before long a rider appeared; the lowlander with eyes of steel. Dressed as a man of the cloth, my friend concealed his knife and bid him stop. As the man dismounted, Duncan seized him and cut his throat from ear to ear.
I watched this without emotion. It didn’t matter. Mine was a world without pain and hunger, or domination by the English. Duncan would be along soon enough.
***
By Jeanne Treat
 
Please visit Jeanne Treat's blog, http://jeannetreat.wordpress.com/


Thank you Jeanne Treat for allowing me to share your short story. Please feel free to leave any questions or comments,


 

6 comments:

Maggie said...

I really enjoyed Jeanne Treat's story. Thanks for sharing it today.
Her trilogy looks fantastic.
I'll be ordering them!
Really great way to mark the anniversary Kimberly.

Gary said...

I enjoy reading about Scotland and its history and this was a terrific story! I will look into The Dark Birthright Trilogy. It sounds very intriguing. Thanks for sharing this very interesting post with us Kimberly. I really enjoy your blog!

Kimberly Eve said...

Thank you Maggie and Gary for commenting.
I'm so glad you both enjoyed
today's post!

Hermes said...

Great post, only had the vaguest idea what happened.

Kimberly Eve said...

Same here Hermes.I didn't know all the details of the Battle of Culloden but those lost souls deserve to be remembered. Thanks so much for stopping by and commenting.

Gerald said...

War is a fascinating subject. Despite the dubious morality of using violence to achieve personal or political aims. It remains that conflict has been used to do just that throughout recorded history.

Your article is very well done, a good read.

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